There are two ways of keeping cattle: tethered and loose.
Anchor content. Animals are housed in stalls, on a leash, with or without bedding. Feeding and drinking takes place in stalls or in the milking parlor. The area of the stall for cows at commercial enterprises should be 1.7-2.3 sq.m., for breeding enterprises – 2.1-2.4 sq.m. (the width and length of the stalls are 1.0-1.2 and 1.7-1.9 m-1 2 and 1.8-2.0 m, respectively).
Loose content. Cattle are kept in groups throughout the year (or in certain seasons) in specially equipped premises with walking and fodder yards, without a leash, on a deep permanent bedding or in boxes (with solid or slotted floors in the aisles). In the sections, each cow has 4-5 sq.m. (commercial farms), boxing area – 1.9-2.5 sq.m. (width – 1.0-1.2; length – 1.9-2.1 m) at commodity and breeding enterprises.
In cattle breeding, the following maintenance systems are used: stall-pasture, stall-walking and flow-shop.
Stable-pasture system. Animals are kept in stationary rooms; in winter and transitional periods, they are provided with walks in the corral or active exercise, and in summer they graze on pasture. For the summer period, animals are transferred to specially equipped camps: with grazing (pasture-camp keeping) or using a green conveyor (stall-camp keeping).
Stable-walking system. It is used in areas with a large plowed land when it is impossible to rationalize the organization of grazing and summer camps. Animals are kept indoors. PM provide a daily walk on the walking grounds or organize an active exercise on special runs or in mechanized installations. In summer, it is possible to feed the animals in the walking-fodder yards.
Flow-shop system. For intensification of production, taking into account the physiological state of animals is of particular importance. On large mechanized farms, separate technological groups are formed: dry, maternity, insemination and milk production, production.
Cows and heifers arrive at the dry mill 50 days before calving. Keep them loose or on a leash. Be sure to organize an active exercise.
Animals are transferred to the maternity department 5-7 days before the expected birth. This workshop has one or two maternity wards with a dispensary for calves. In the maternity ward, the following sectors are provided: prenatal (with individual machines), generic (with stall boxes) and postpartum.
The delivery box has a width of 3 m, a length of 3.0-3.5, a height of 1.7 m. It is pre-cleaned, disinfected, covered with a clean, good-quality bedding. The cow is transferred to the box 24 hours before delivery and is kept untied. After the calf is born, the cow licks it thoroughly. The newborn receives colostrum from the mother’s udder. This is very important, since colostrum contains antibodies that increase the calf’s body resistance to various diseases, including infectious ones. It is advisable to keep him with his mother for 3-5 days, with the obligatory milk of the cows (at least 3 times a day). Delivery in boxes has a positive effect on the health of calves and cows.
After weaning from their mothers, the calves are transferred to individual cages or semi-boxes of the dispensary. One section of the dispensary should have no more than 20 calf cages. Each section of the dispensary is filled within 2-4 days. Here the animals are kept for 10-15 days, then they are transferred to a calf shed or sent to other farms. The vacated sections are cleaned, washed, disinfected, bleached and dried for 2-3 days (“biological rest”). This system is called “everything is empty – everything is busy.” From the age of twenty, calves are kept in group cages. They are provided with daily exercise from two weeks of age.