When organizing the feeding ration of cattle, it is necessary to take into account the feeding rates available on the farm and the amount of nutrients in them. The fodder base must be formed in such a way that the diet of cows consists of a variety of components and includes a balanced diet of juicy, roughage and concentrated feed, which must contain all the necessary nutrients for the body. Balancing is performed for such nutritional elements as protein, essential amino acids, vitamins and minerals. The lack of minerals and microelements (sodium, calcium, phosphorus, etc.) in the diet is compensated by the use of special additives. With a lack or excess of at least one component, the degree of use of nutrients of the entire diet worsens, and as a result, the productivity of the animal decreases.
The need for balancing the feeding of cows is to meet the daily needs of the herd herd with sufficient nutrients. It is considered balanced if the food received within 24 hours contains in total the daily norm of nutrients and vitamins necessary for the animal.
When compiling a diet for cattle, the following are mainly used: hay, straw, silage, haylage, green, concentrated and combined dry feed. The composition of the diet should include high quality feed, which will ensure high productivity of animals, good feed payment and increase reproduction. With industrial livestock management, the need for the correct composition of the feed mixture increases.
Compiling a balanced diet with a large number of standardized ingredients requires a significant investment of time and the availability of highly qualified specialists with the ability to perform a large number of computational operations. The solution to the problem can be the use of modern technologies, which consist in the introduction of a computer program into the economy for compiling rations for a small number of animal indicators.
The main information when calculating the diet using a computer program are:
- The type, age and productivity of the animal.
- The amount of feed and feed additives on the farm.
- Chemical composition and nutritional value of feed.
- Detailed norms (daily requirement of a specific group of animals for energy and nutrients).
- The time period for which the diet is calculated (pasture, stall or monthly).
- The maximum amount of individual feed and additives in the diet.
- Allowable limits on total energy demand.
- The cost of the feed used, etc.
Thus, the feeding ration of cows, calculated using modern computer technologies at the livestock complex, contributes to a significant increase in the quality of nutrition, a decrease in time and effort in calculating, and allows you to take into account changes in the animal’s needs for nutrients at different levels of productivity, physiological state, lactation period, age, body weight and other factors.